To secure the allegiance of the approximately 90,000 French-speaking Canadians to the British crown, first Governor James Murray and later Governor Guy Carleton promoted the need for change. The Saint Lawrence River has some of the world's largest sustaining inland Atlantic ports at Montreal (the province's largest city), Trois-Rivières, and Quebec City (the capital). Various buildings reflect the architectural heritage that characterizes Quebec, such as religious buildings, city halls, houses of large estates, and other locations throughout the province. [125] By some measures Quebec is the highest taxed province;[126] a 2012 study indicated that "Quebec companies pay 26 per cent more in taxes than the Canadian average". Inspired by the growing success of the 6/20 Tour, Aquarium du Québec, The New Mega Parc, Musée de la civilisation, Musée du Fort, Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec and Observatoire de la Capitale are joining forces once again to offer visitors 20% off. It was at this moment that the monks of La Trappe of Oka began to produce the famous Oka cheese. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. By 1903, the parent of today's flag had taken shape, known as the "Fleurdelisé". The Loyalists were thus given land grants of 200 acres (81 ha) per person. Its capital is Quebec City, which is located in the southeastern portion of the province, along the St. Lawrence River. Trudeau advocated the patriation of Canada's Constitution from the United Kingdom. The Moulin à paroles traces the great texts that have shaped the history of Quebec since its foundation in 1534 until the era of modernity. They are not subject to any arrangement. [35] The most populous physiographic region is the Saint Lawrence Lowland. [232] Among these troops are contemporary, travelling and on-horseback circuses, such as Les 7 Doigts de la Main, Cirque Éloize, Cavalia, Kosmogonia, Saka and Cirque Akya. The Capitale-Nationale region is the cradle of Québec. [140] In contrast, in the rest of Canada, in 2006 only about 10.2 percent (2,430,990) of the population had a knowledge of both of the country's official languages. Location of the Province of Quebec . However, initial French attempts at settling the region met with failure. In that year, the Legislative Council was abolished and the Legislative Assembly was renamed the National Assembly. Precipitation is also somewhat less than farther south, except at some of the higher elevations. [114] On November 27, 2006, the House of Commons passed a symbolic motion moved by Prime Minister Stephen Harper declaring "that this House recognize that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada. TPG bought a majority stake in 2015. The Labrador Peninsula is covered by the Laurentian Plateau (or Canadian Shield), dotted with mountains such as Otish Mountains. Many Quebec poets and prominent authors marked their era and today remain anchored in the collective imagination, like, among others, Philippe Aubert de Gaspé, Octave Crémazie, Honoré Beaugrand, Émile Nelligan, Lionel Groulx, Gabrielle Roy, Hubert Aquin, Michel Tremblay, Marie Laberge, Fred Pellerin and Gaston Miron. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate (latitude and altitude), and the proximity to water. When Great Britain declared war on August 4, 1914, Canada was automatically involved as a dominion. Other notable rivers include the Ashuapmushuan, Chaudière, Gatineau, Manicouagan, Ottawa, Richelieu, Rupert, Saguenay, Saint-François, and Saint-Maurice. Pilon, Robert, Isabelle Lamoureux, and Gilles Turcotte (1991). Learn more. [24] Each became one of the first four provinces. About 60 000 people currently working in computer software development. Quebec is the only Canadian province whose population is mainly Francophone; 6,102,210 people (78.1 percent of the population) recorded it as their sole native language in the 2011 Census, and 6,249,085 (80.0%) recorded that they spoke it most often at home. Quebec City is the capital of the province Quebec. T H O M S O N F I N A N C I A L February 14, 2006 Kirk Falconer Director, Research and Analysis Thomson Financial Réseau de capital de risque du Québec Legitimate exceptions are Montreal and Quebec. The Capitale-Nationale region covers a total area of 18 643 km 2. With a land area of 1,356,625.27 km2 (523,795.95 sq mi), it had a population density of 6.0/km2 (15.6/sq mi) in 2016. The Lieutenant Governor represents the Queen of Canada and acts as the province's head of state. [43] Most of central Quebec, ranging from 51 to 58 degrees North has a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc). [149] In June 2017 S&P rated Quebec as an AA- credit risk, surpassing Ontario for the first time. The northern regions of Quebec have an arctic climate (Köppen ET), with very cold winters and short, much cooler summers. Quebec is at the centre of French-speaking culture in North America. Land speculators and settlers objected to the transfer of western lands previously claimed by the colonies to a non-representative government. The traditional Quebecois cuisine descends from 16th century French cuisine, the fur trade and a history of hunting. What worked for Carleton in 1774 was not likely to succeed in 1784. [40] Southern and western Quebec, including most of the major population centres and areas south of 51oN, have a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with four distinct seasons having warm to occasionally hot and humid summers and often very cold and snowy winters. Quebec's economy has traditionally been fuelled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and average productivity. The Cultural Heritage Fund is a program of the Quebec government[235] for the conservation and development of Quebec's heritage, together with various laws. Given a warmer climate, the diversity of organisms is also higher, since there are about 850 plant species and 280 vertebrates species. The existing constitutional document, the British North America Act, could only be amended by the United Kingdom Parliament upon a request by the Canadian parliament. In the Labrador Peninsula portion of the Shield, the far northern region of Nunavik includes the Ungava Peninsula and consists of flat Arctic tundra inhabited mostly by the Inuit. [40] Winters are long, very cold, and snowy, and among the coldest in eastern Canada, while summers are warm but very short due to the higher latitude and the greater influence of Arctic air masses. [178] The spending on research and development reached some 7.824 billion dollars in 2007, roughly the equivalent of 2.63% of Quebec's GDP. [138], A considerable number of Quebec residents consider themselves to be bilingual in French and English. Its culture is a symbol of a distinct perspective. The southern portion of the shield extends to the Laurentians, a mountain range just north of the Saint Lawrence Lowland, that attracts local and international tourists to ski hills and lakeside resorts. Quebec is divided into four climatic zones: arctic, subarctic, humid continental and East maritime. [74] In 1608, he returned as head of an exploration party and founded Quebec City with the intention of making the area part of the French colonial empire. [49], The all-time record of the greatest precipitation in winter was established in winter 2007–2008, with more than five metres[50] of snow in the area of Quebec City, while the average amount received per winter is around three metres. [176] The Quebec forest area covers seven degrees of latitude. It supports creation, innovation, production, and international exhibits for all cultural fields of Quebec. Quebec has more than 450 biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies which together employ more than 25,000 people and 10,000 highly qualified researchers. In 2008, electricity ranked as the main form of energy used in Quebec (41.6%), followed by oil (38.2%) and natural gas (10.7%). Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to dual responses. [197], Quebec ranks among the world leaders in the field of life science. The Ballets Jazz de Montreal, the Grands Ballets and La La La Human Steps are three important professional troupes of contemporary dance. Stroll the cobblestone streets of the only fortified city north of Mexico and explore its gorgeous outdoors nearby. Quebec also produces a great number of high-quality wines including ice wine and ice cider. Quebec has an advanced, market-based, and open economy. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Quebec, QC. [13] Even in central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. The National Capital Region’s hundreds of kilometres of trails and multi-use … The Canadian Shield also has a complex hydrological network of perhaps a million lakes, bogs, streams and rivers. [162], About 180 000 Quebeckers work in different field of information technology. In addition to the network of cultural centres in Quebec,[230] the venues include the Monument-National and the Rideau Vert (green curtain) Theatre in Montreal, the Trident Theatre in Quebec City, etc. In 2003, the value of mineral exploitation reached Quebec 3.7 billion Canadian dollars. Mixed forests provide most of Canada's springtime maple syrup crop. Many feared the establishment of Catholicism in Quebec, and that the French Canadians were being courted to help oppress British Americans.[92]. [202], Concerning rail transport, Quebec has 6,678 kilometres (4,150 mi) of railways[203] integrated in the large North American network. Although the area is inhabited principally by the Cree, Naskapi, and Innu First Nations, thousands of temporary workers reside at Radisson to service the massive James Bay Hydroelectric Project on the La Grande and Eastmain rivers. [60] Livestock production also includes the pig breeds Landrace, Duroc and Yorkshire[61] and many breeds of sheep[62] and cattle. In 1778, Frederick Haldimand took over for Guy Carleton as governor of Quebec. It reported a total resident population of 729,997 as of the Canada 2016 Census,[1] with Quebec City having 73.7 percent of the total. 312", "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2011 and 2006 censuses", "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory", "Canadian Federal and Provincial Fiscal Tables", "Dette: le Québec, cancre d'une classe surdouée", "Quebec credit rating surpasses Ontario for first time ever", "L'expertise québécoise en haute technologie", "L'économie du savoir en mutation au Québec", "The Benefits of Investing in Québec Research & Development", "Les raisons d'une implantation multiple dans un pays clé de l'aéronautique mondial", "Stratégie de développement de l'industrie aéronautique québécoise", "Québec veut investir 2 milliards pour stimuler l'économie", "Investir en TIC, innovation et créativité | Investissement Québec", "Industrie minière et substances exploitées", "Encore "dix ans difficiles" pour l'industrie forestière", "Le Québec est le chouchou de l'industrie minière", "Industrie minière: valeur des expéditions, selon les principales substances minérales, Québec", "Le Québec chiffres en main, édition 2009 – Végétation", "Stratégie québécoise de la recherche et de l'innovation (SQRI) 2010–2013", "Comparaisons économiques internationales", "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus", "Science and Technology: Portal of the government of Québec", "Québec had 195 triadic inventions patented", "ombre de publications scientifiques en sciences naturelles et génie par 100,000 habitants, provinces et territoires, 1980 à 2009", "Nombre de publications scientifiques en sciences naturelles et génie, Québec, Ontario, pays du G8, pays nordiques, certains pays émergents et monde, et part dans le total mondial, 1980 à 2009", "Les publications scientifiques québécoises de 1991 à 2000", "A fourth planet around the star HR 8799", "La NASA acquiert une caméra conçue à l'UdeM", "Québec Science remet le Prix du public Découverte de l'année 2009 à un chercheur d'étoiles", "Un oeil de lynx pour la NASA grâce à un Lévisien", "La recherche et le développement au Québec", "Railway Gazette: Railway could tap Québec's northern wealth", "The Route verte puts all of Quebec within reach of your handlebars! The Quiet Revolution was a period of dramatic social and political change[104] that saw the decline of Anglo supremacy in the Quebec economy, the decline of the Roman Catholic Church's influence,[14] the formation of hydroelectric companies under Hydro-Québec[104] and the emergence of a pro-sovereignty movement under former Liberal minister René Lévesque. In 1837, residents of Lower Canada – led by Louis-Joseph Papineau and Robert Nelson – formed an armed resistance group to seek an end to the unilateral control of the British governors. The white admiral butterfly (Limenitis arthemis)[244] won with 32% of the 230 660 votes against the spotted lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata lengi), the ebony jewelwing damselfly (Calopteryx maculata), a species of bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) and the six-spotted tiger beetle (Cicindela sexguttata sexguttata). On October 30, 1995, with the Parti Québécois back in power since 1994, a second referendum on sovereignty took place. Development and security of land transportation in Canada are provided by the ministère des Transports du Québec. It is anchored by the provincial capital, Quebec City, and is largely coextensive with that city's metropolitan area. The books and records of the National Assembly must also be kept in both languages. With the exception of the small islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, located off the coast of Newfoundland, France ceded its North American possessions to Great Britain through the Treaty of Paris (1763) in favour of gaining the island of Guadeloupe for its then-lucrative sugar cane industry. Caisse DE Depot ET Placement DU Quebec’s holdings in Annaly Capital […] In western Quebec, the average altitude is about 500 metres, while in the Gaspé Peninsula, the Appalachian peaks (especially the Chic-Choc) are among the highest in Quebec, exceeding 1000 metres. The knowledge sector represents about 30.9% of Quebec's GDP. Le Ballet de Québec, and theOpéra de Québec. The creation of Upper and Lower Canada in 1791 allowed most Loyalists to live under British laws and institutions, while the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain their familiar French civil law and the Catholic religion. [123], The government of Quebec takes the majority of its revenue through a progressive income tax, a 9.975% sales tax[124] and various other taxes (such as carbon, corporate and capital gains taxes), equalization payments from the federal government, transfer payments from other provinces and direct payments. [184] The contribution of Quebec in science and technology represent approximately 1% of the researches worldwide since the 1980s to 2009. [64] The third most northern forest area is characterized by deciduous forests. [109] Polls showed that the overwhelming majority of English and immigrant Quebecers voted against, and that French Quebecers were almost equally divided, with older voters less in favour and younger voters more in favour. The lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. [178] Quebec is ranked, as of March 2011, 13th in the world in terms of investment in research and development. Fiscal measures. [164], The mining industry accounted for 6.3% of Quebec's GDP. After the rebellions, Lord Durham was asked to undertake a study and prepare a report on the matter and to offer a solution for the British Parliament to assess. Origins in this table are self-reported and respondents were allowed to give more than one answer. While low and medium altitude peak from western Quebec to the far north, high altitudes mountains emerge in the Capitale-Nationale region to the extreme east, along its longitude. The situation called for a more creative approach to problem solving. The economy of Quebec represents 20.36% of the total GDP of Canada. It is located between Ontario, James Bay and Hudson Bay on the west; Labrador and the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the east; between Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay on the north; and New Brunswick and the United States on the south. Prior attempts to amend the Canadian constitution to acknowledge Quebec as a "distinct society" – referring to the province's uniqueness within Canada regarding law, language, and culture – have been unsuccessful; however, the federal government under Prime Minister Jean Chrétien would later endorse recognition of Quebec as a distinct society. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Authorities in New France became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from the Ohio Valley. The Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec (CALQ) is an initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Communications (Quebec). [95], In ten years, Quebec had undergone a dramatic change. We are continuously leveraging our expertise, our teams’ know-how and our extensive Québec and international business networks to ensure that we have a real impact and create lasting value. Linguistic map of the province of Quebec (source: Statistics Canada, 2006 census): Indigenous peoples and European exploration, Seven Years' War and capitulation of New France. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined Ontario and Quebec in the new Dominion of Canada. used to in the American colonies. Although primarily intended for the transport of goods through companies such as the Canadian National (CN) and the Canadian Pacific (CP), the Quebec railway network is also used by inter-city passengers via Via Rail Canada and Amtrak. Being a modern cosmopolitan society, today, all types of music can be found in Quebec. [45] From temperate zones to the northern territories of the Far North, the brightness varies with latitude, as well as the Northern Lights and midnight sun. Forests cover more than half of Quebec's territory, for a total area of nearly 761,100 square kilometres (293,900 sq mi). The Quebec Act provided the people of Quebec their first Charter of Rights and paved the way to later official recognition of the French language and French culture. The fund owned 354,600 shares of the real estate investment trust’s stock after selling 19,400 shares during the period. During its history, Quebec has hosted several major sporting events; including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the Fencing World Championships in 1967, track cycling in 1974, and the Transat Québec-Saint-Malo race created for the first time in 1984. [100], In the 1860s, the delegates from the colonies of British North America (Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland) met in a series of conferences to discuss self-governing status for a new confederation. [86] In 1754, George Washington launched a surprise attack on a group of Canadian soldiers sleeping in the early morning hours. [141][142] Until 1969, Quebec was the only officially bilingual province in Canada and most public institutions functioned in both languages. Sports in Quebec constitutes an essential dimension of Quebec culture. Quebec accounts for 24% of Canada's total population. Lévesque insisted Quebec be able to veto any future constitutional amendments. The Granby Zoo and theMusée national des beaux-arts du Québec are also popular spots. The large land wildlife is mainly composed of the white-tailed deer, the moose, the muskox, the caribou (reindeer), the American black bear and the polar bear. The Film Festival of the 3 Americas, Quebec City, the Festival of International Short Film, Saguenay, the World Film Festival and the Festival of New Cinema, Montreal, are other annual events surrounding the film industry in Quebec. [241] Other major sports include Canadian football with the Montreal Alouettes, soccer with the Montreal Impact, the Grand Prix du Canada Formula 1 racing with drivers such as Gilles Villeneuve and Jacques Villeneuve, and professional baseball with the former Montreal Expos. The Oka hills also rise from the plain. Located in the eastern part of Canada, and (from a historical and political perspective) part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of which is very sparsely populated. [205], Various other transport networks crisscross the province of Quebec, including hiking trails, snowmobile trails and bike paths; the Green Road being the largest with nearly 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) in length. Quebec is the only province not to have assented to the patriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982.[110]. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 did much to highlight the divisions between French and English-speaking Canadians in Canada. The National Capital Region spans the Ontario-Quebec border. The aquatic environment is composed of 12.1% of fresh water and 9.2% of saltwater (percentage of total QC area). [17] French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France. Quebec has had over 9,469 scientific publications in the sector of medicine, biomedical research and engineering since the year 2000. [55], Inland waters are populated by small to large fresh water fish, such as the largemouth bass, the American pickerel, the walleye, the Acipenser oxyrinchus, the muskellunge, the Atlantic cod, the Arctic char, the brook trout, the Microgadus tomcod (tomcod), the Atlantic salmon, the rainbow trout, etc.[56]. Sea and semi-aquatic birds seen in Quebec are mostly the Canada goose, the double-crested cormorant, the northern gannet, the European herring gull, the great blue heron, the sandhill crane, the Atlantic puffin and the common loon. Our team offers transactions using debt, equity or hybrid instruments, both as a direct investor and as a partner in investment funds. It is conferred upon men and women born or living in Quebec (but non-Quebecers can be inducted as well) for outstanding achievements. French settlers populating North America were interested in a new cuisine to confront the climate and the needs arising from the work of colonization. The topography of the Shield has been shaped by glaciers from the successive ice ages, which explains the glacial deposits of boulders, gravel and sand, and by sea water and post-glacial lakes that left behind thick deposits of clay in parts of the Shield. The tours are geared to Québec student groups and … [79] They established fur trading forts on the Great Lakes (Étienne Brûlé 1615), Hudson Bay (Radisson and Groseilliers 1659–60), Ohio River and Mississippi River (La Salle 1682), as well as the Saskatchewan River and Missouri River (de la Verendrye 1734–1738). Lawrence Marine Park until the Île d'Orléans (French for Orleans Island), such as the blue whale, the beluga, the minke whale and the harp seal (earless seal). However, it is still below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1. Among the Nordic marine animals, there are two particularly important to cite: the walrus and the narwhal. Many metallic minerals are exploited, the principals are gold, iron, copper and zinc. We have a profound understanding of this market where we play a structuring role that goes well beyond investment. Among the birds commonly seen in the southern inhabited part of Quebec, there are the American robin, the house sparrow, the red-winged blackbird, the mallard, the common grackle, the blue jay, the American crow, the black-capped chickadee, some warblers and swallows, the starling and the rock pigeon, the latter two having been introduced in Quebec and are found mainly in urban areas. British reinforcements came up the St. Lawrence in May 1776, and the Battle of Trois-Rivières turned into a disaster for the Americans. Vol. Montreal's cabarets rose to the forefront of the city's cultural life during the Prohibition era of Canada and the United States in the 1920s. The podorythmie is a characteristic of traditional Quebec music and means giving the rhythm with the feet. [174] Moreover, as a major centre of exploration for diamonds,[175] Quebec has seen, since 2002, an increase in its mineral explorations, particularly in the Northwest as well as in the Otish Mountains and the Torngat Mountains. At the request of Premier Robert Bourassa, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoked the War Measures Act. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq (Levasseur, 1601) and Kébec (Lescarbot, 1609). This author will be part of the current of patriotic literature (also known as the "poets of the country" and literary identity) that will arise after the Patriots Rebellion of 1837–1838. [38] The combination of rich and easily arable soils and Quebec's relatively warm climate makes this valley the most prolific agricultural area of Quebec province. It is an official part of the coat of arms and has been the official licence plate motto since 1978, replacing "La belle province" (the beautiful province).

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